One of the most appreciated pleasures of coffee at the bar is the foam or cream of the Espresso or Cappuccino, in which are concentrated all the aromas that make coffee one of the most well-known and popular beverages in the world. Espresso coffee has a volume of 25 centiliters and the foam accounts for at least 10 percent of the total. It is a part consisting of liquid coffee and microbubbles of carbon dioxide with a diameter between 10 and 150 thousandths of a millimeter and a membrane consisting of fats, proteins, polyphenols, acids and carbohydrates, and microglobules of oils (

Few people know that the foam is higher in Robusta coffee and lower in Arabica, and it is a higher foam with a broader texture than in the Arabica variety, which generates a lower foam with a thicker, finer texture. To form the perfect espresso foam, it is important that the water temperature ranges from 89/90° and up and that there is a pressure of 9 bar.

Coffee foam – The perfect cappuccino

When talking about coffee foam, one cannot think of cappuccino, a drink consumed by Italians at breakfast and snack time and in the rest of the world also at lunch and dinner. In this case, it is important to whip the milk properly to get the perfect cappuccino foam.

Cappuccino is a drink that originated in Italy in the 1930s, when the first coffee machines with steam wands began to spread. The Italian Espresso National Institute recommends making cappuccino with 25 ml of espresso coffee and 100 ml of steam-whipped milk to obtain a drink composed of 1/3 milk (liquid part), 1/3 coffee and 1/3 cream.

Cappuccino – Characteristics

To the eye, the cappuccino is white with a brown border, and even the name seems to refer to the cassock of Capuchin friars. People who order a cappuccino at the bar can choose from:

Classic cappuccino – with milk and coffee in normal amounts

Light Cappuccino – with higher amounts of milk

Dark cappuccino – with larger amounts of coffee

Not only that. The best baristas resort to Latte Art by decorating the cappuccino foam with cocoa or simply by matching milk and coffee and using a stencil or toothpick. Cappuccino foam comes from the lance of the coffee machine and the steam and pressure that incorporates air into the milk, transforming fats and proteins as it heats up.

The experienced barista knows how to achieve a firm, cream-like milk froth that has no large bubbles, only bubbles invisible to the naked eye, and is creamy on the palate. An improperly whipped froth is one that disappears or subsides with cocoa and the cooling of the cappuccino.

The secrets of making cappuccino with a steam lance

The best espresso machines sold by Portioli are equipped with steam lances and allow you to make the perfect cappuccino. To make the cream, cold whole milk must be poured into a steel container, the lance is freed from the water, and the end of the lance is plunged into the pot so that it is submerged for at least an inch.

At this point, steam is operated in such a way as to produce a vortex, the result of which is the creation of the cream. Once 60/65° (brewing or serving temperature) is reached, the steam is turned off and the jug is swirled to polish the cream and amalgamate it with the liquid part of the milk.

The wand should be operated one last time to remove the milk residue, and then the dirty part is wiped off with a clean, wet cloth. The result is the perfect cappuccino, with a thick, creamy foam that enhances the pleasure of drinking the hot beverage.

Portioli professional coffee machines

A synthesis of the great experience and tradition of the best equipment manufacturers, GIME professional espresso machines stand out for their Italian design, high construction technology, and the quality of the materials and solutions used.

To baristas, Portioli offers Opera, Sinfonia and Melodia coffee machines to get perfect espresso and cappuccino. Discover them on the Portioli website!